In order to proliferate, survive and become a clinically detectable tumour, cancer cells must have to devise strategies to evade the immunosurveillance imposed by the immune system. Consequently, considerable efforts have been made in our understanding of how cancer cells evade immune destruction, which has given insights into how to specifically target cancer cells using our body’s natural defenses; a field that is broadly classified as cancer immunotherapy.
Studies in the past two decades have identified a subpopulation of cancer cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumour-initiating cells (TICs) as being solely responsible for tumour initiation, progression, relapse, metastasis and drug resistance . Consequently, selective targeting of CSCs within the tumour cell population was initially thought to be a very promising therapeutic strategy to treating cancer.
The 2019 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been jointly awarded to three scientists: William G. Kaelin Jr., professor of medicine at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham & Women’s Hospital Harvard Medical School; Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe, director of clinical research at the Francis Crick Institute in London and director of the Target Discovery Institute at Oxford; and Gregg L. Semenza, professor of genetic medicine at Johns Hopkins – for their work on how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.
Two cancer researchers, Professor James P. Allison (from the US) and Professor Tasuku Honjo (from Japan) have been awarded the 2018 Nobel prize for their discovery of using the body’s own immune system to fight off some forms of cancer. … Continued
Sleeping cancer cells? yes, you heard that right! Following surgery and/or chemotherapy, we always assume that cancer has been treated after series of diagnostic tests to ensure that no cancer cells are detectable. While this is often the case for … Continued
Introduction Cancer can be defined as a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases characterised by unregulated clonal expansion of somatic cells brought about by multiple genetic and epigenetic changes . Cancer development and progression in humans involves multi-step processes that … Continued
Introduction Glycolysis is an anaerobic, sequential, enzymatic and catabolic multi-step process that converts a single glucose molecule into two pyruvates in the cytoplasm coupled with the production of two NADH molecules and a net yield of two molecules of ATP. … Continued