In order to proliferate, survive and become a clinically detectable tumour, cancer cells must have to devise strategies to evade the immunosurveillance imposed by the immune system. Consequently, considerable efforts have been made in our understanding of how cancer cells evade immune destruction, which has given insights into how to specifically target cancer cells using our body’s natural defenses; a field that is broadly classified as cancer immunotherapy.
Studies in the past two decades have identified a subpopulation of cancer cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumour-initiating cells (TICs) as being solely responsible for tumour initiation, progression, relapse, metastasis and drug resistance . Consequently, selective targeting of CSCs within the tumour cell population was initially thought to be a very promising therapeutic strategy to treating cancer.
Introduction Biological processes such as transcription, translation, and DNA repair all depend on the specific interactions between proteins and DNA. These DNA-protein interactions are necessary for the growth, development and survival of organisms in the three domains of life, and … Continued
INTRODUCTION Biological membranes are selective barriers that separate cells from the environment, and also partition intracellular organelles. They are important in the selective transport of biological molecules such as ions, glucose, carbon dioxide in and out of the cell and … Continued
Introduction Cancer can be defined as a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases characterised by unregulated clonal expansion of somatic cells brought about by multiple genetic and epigenetic changes . Cancer development and progression in humans involves multi-step processes that … Continued
Introduction Glycolysis is an anaerobic, sequential, enzymatic and catabolic multi-step process that converts a single glucose molecule into two pyruvates in the cytoplasm coupled with the production of two NADH molecules and a net yield of two molecules of ATP. … Continued